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Sinusoidal Voltage

A sinusoidal voltage can be described by the equation:

v(t) = VM sin (ωt + Φ) or v(t) = VM cos (ωt + Φ)

where v(t) Instantaneous value of the voltage, in volts (V).
VM Maximum or peak value of the voltage, in volts (V)
T Period: The time taken for one cycle, in seconds
f Frequency – the number of periods in 1 second, in Hz (Hertz) or 1/s. f = 1/T
ω Angular frequency, expressed in radians/s
ω = 2*π*f or ω = 2*π / T.
Φ Initial phase given in radians or degrees. This quantity determines the value of the sine or cosine wave att = 0.
Note: The amplitude of a sinusoidal voltage is sometimes expressed as VEff, the effective or RMS value. This is related to VMaccording to the relationship VM=√2VEff, or approximately VEff = 0.707 VM

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