## Distribution Substations Roles, Types & Components

As an electrical engineer or professional you already know that an electrical or distribution substation is very important components of any power distribution system. Normally electrical grid can be considered as simple circuit which includes power source or generation, power transmission and electricity distribution lines for connecting to the electricity …

## Power Factor Improvement & Correction | Power Triangle & Capacitor Banks

The electrical energy is almost exclusively generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. Therefore, the question of power factor immediately comes into picture. Most of the loads (e.g. induction motors, arc lamps) are inductive in nature and hence have low lagging power factor. The low power factor …

## Power & Voltage Distribution Systems – Components Introduction

Distributions systems represent an important parts in the electrical grids and for this reasons the electrical generation & distribution companies delicate approximately 40% of the capital investment for distribution systems while the remaining is given to generation and transmission (40% generation & 20% transmission). The power distribution system is particularly …

## Introduction of Distribution Electrical Transformers – How Transformer Works?

In general understanding electrical distribution transformers are used to reduce primary system voltages (which is normally 2.4-34.5kV) to the level of utilization voltages i.e. 120- 600V. International electrotechnical commission standards do not distinguish between distribution electrical transformers and power transformer. They are all power electrical transformers in the sense that …

## Electric Current Electric Charge & Electromagnetism

Very basic question which an electrical student or professional may be asked is what is electric current and electric charge. The electric current is actually the flow of electric charge from one point to other point of the conductor or wire or cable. In electric circuits this charge is often carried …

## Ideal Transformer Equations

An ideal transformer is a theoretical, linear transformer that is lossless and perfectly coupled; that is, there are no energy losses and flux is completely confined within the magnetic core. Perfect coupling implies infinitely high core magnetic permeability and winding inductance and zero net magneto-motive force. Ideal transformer equations By Faraday’s …

## Transformers Maintenance & EMF Equation of a Transformer

Power transformer is most costly and essential equipment of an electrical system. It is well known fact that power transformers are the heart of the power systems which enables to establish very large power systems networks. Failure of any transformer will create critical situation in power distribution network hence extra …

## Sinusoidal Voltage

A sinusoidal voltage can be described by the equation: v(t) = VM sin (ωt + Φ) or v(t) = VM cos (ωt + Φ) where v(t) Instantaneous value of the voltage, in volts (V). VM Maximum or peak value of the voltage, in volts (V) T Period: The time taken …

## Introduction of Control Engineering | Closed Loop Open Loop Control Systems

Control system engineering is the branch of engineering which deals with the principles of control theory to design a system which gives desired behavior in a controlled manner. A controlled system consists of highly integrated coordination of mechanical, electrical, chemical, metallurgical, electronic or pneumatic elements. System Control engineering deals with diverse …